The Aeneid By Virgil


    Book Review
    3 out of 5 stars to The Aeneid, a classic work written in 17 BC by Virgil.

    In The Aeneid, Virgil creates two vastly different archetypal heroes named Turnus and Aeneas. Aeneas is a Trojan prince who has hopes of finding a new Troy in the land of Latium, but he runs into an angered Turnus, a Rutulian prince that does not welcome Aeneas. Both men are equally strong, equally determined, and have equal and rightful claim to the land. However, Virgil creates this distinct difference and hatred between the men that leads to the profound greatness of Rome.

    Turnus is a Rutulian prince who is planning on marrying Lavinia, the princess of Latium. He is courageous when he defends his people in the war against the Trojans (Book IX and X), brilliant in his plans to attack the Trojan camp (p.207), yet motivated to win for purely personal goals. Turnus sacrifices public welfare and the good of the state just to defeat Aeneas and win the battle and Lavinia. Aeneas is also a prince who is planning on marrying Lavinia. He is caring when he looks back for his late wife Creusa (p.57), respectful and loving when his father dies (p.80), and driven when he continues his journey to find a new Troy (p.103). However, unlike Turnus, Aeneas is truly unselfish in his reasons for wanting Latium. Aeneas wants to settle the land for his people and their families, to find a new Troy. Aeneas does not want the land to be selfish. Both Turnus and Aeneas have determination behind them, physical and mental strength behind them, yet most of all the gods behind them.

    With the help of Juno, Turnus fights till the end avoiding several near deaths such as Pallas’ arrow and his jump into the Tiber River fully armored. Similar to Turnus, Aeneas’ mother helps Aeneas by giving him protection with the creation of the shield (p.198), and when she heals Aeneas’ wound with the special potion (p. 302). Turnus and Aeneas up until this point have no differences. They are identical in their strengths, weaknesses, and support. However, the one major difference between them is that Aeneas has destiny behind him. He is fated to take care of his Trojan people, find a new Troy, marry Lavinia, and bear descendants to establish the great city of Rome. Aeneas has no choice but to win the war and Lavinia’s hand in marriage. Turnus must lose and somehow suffer; He cannot escape his fate. Virgil makes use of the difference between the two heroes using antagonism, hatred and most of all the superiority of Aeneas to show the greatness of Rome.

    At the time The Aeneid was written Augustus Caesar was in power and the Pax Romana was beginning. Rome was in a state of absolute reign and greatness. Virgil makes use of the character Aeneas to show the greatness of his friend Octavian or Augustus Caesar. He uses the difference between the two heroes to show that by destiny via Aeneas (an ancestor of Octavian Caesar) Rome will lead the world in philosophy, art, and intelligence, etc. Turnus is good, but Aeneas is better and so is the new emperor Caesar. With Octavian Caesar in control, Rome will become even greater than it is. Virgil accomplishes his goal of glorifying Rome and its leader Augustus Caesar.

    Virgil creates a strong similarity between Turnus and Aeneas, however the major characteristic of these two heroes is that Aeneas is destined to win and Turnus to lose. This difference greatly surpasses the likeness between the two men and leads to the exaltation and glorification of Rome. If Augustus Caesar is anywhere similar to Aeneas, which he is as Virgil points out, he will lead Rome to the tops. And that is just what happens!

    About Me
    For those new to me or my reviews... here's the scoop: I read A LOT. I write A LOT. And now I blog A LOT. First the book review goes on Goodreads, and then I send it on over to my WordPress blog at, where you'll also find TV & Film reviews, the revealing and introspective 365 Daily Challenge and lots of blogging about places I've visited all over the world. And you can find all my social media profiles to get the details on the who/what/when/where and my pictures. Leave a comment and let me know what you think. Vote in the poll and ratings. Thanks for stopping by. 442 History records that Virgil wrote his epic poem The Aeneid to fulfill two purposes. One is to restore the faith among Romans in the Greatness of Rome at a time such faith was hard tried. The second reason is to legitimize the Caesar line to the Roman throne. To achieve this end, Virgil picks up a Trojan hero by the name of Aeneas, who is a mythical legend in Homer's epic poem The Iliad , and weaves a tale of how he became the founding father of future Roman rulers.

    Having drawn his hero from Homer, Virgil also draws his influence from Homer. The Aeneid in all sense is a structural mixture of The Iliad and The Odyssey. Out of the twelve books, the first six tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings and the many obstacles he faces in his voyage to Italy thus imitating the pattern of The Odyssey . The next six books hold the story of warfare: the war between the Trojans and the Rutulians for the throne of Italy and the royal bride. This part imitates Homer's The Iliad. However, after this second reading, I felt that Virgil, while imitating Homer, has also surpassed him in a different aspect. Virgil's portrayal of this legendary story is more passionate and expressive than either of Homer's classics. Even the hero Aeneas, is portrayed more like a human than the superheroes Hector, Achilles, and Odysseus, so as to make the human connection to the ruling Caser line more plausible.

    The reading experience of The Aeneid was quite pleasant this time. The translation I read is commendable. It has kept the feel of the time period of this legendary tale while making it more readable at the same time. The story was engaging, and it went quite smoothly through the twelve books. I enjoyed the story and very much enjoyed the dramatic effect with which it was portrayed.

    One particular thing struck me after this read. According to this tale, the Trojans, representing the east, are to become the founding fathers of the western Roman line, mixing them with the native Italians. But here Virgil says that Jupiter, in order to satisfy his wife, Juno, promises that the new mixed race emerging from the Trojan-Italian union will keep the customs, speech, dress, values, and lifestyle of the native Italians, and not of the Trojans. I couldn't help wondering whether this was Virgil's way of expressing the triumph of the West over the East.

    However, from a modern reader’s perspective, this epic poem is a literary justice to the Trojans who are finally rescued from their humiliation and restored to their dignity. For the sympathizers of Troy and Trojans, Virgil has furnished a good antidote. 442 There are plenty of reviews here telling you why you should or shouldn't read book X. This review of Virgil's Aeneid, the largely-completed first century BC nationalist epic poem that recounts the Trojan War and Aeneas's role in the eventual founding of Rome, will tell you instead why you should read a copy of Aeneid from a university library. Simply put: student annotations.

    Nearly every book in a university catalog has been checked out at one time or another by a student reading it as primary or supplemental material for class. Thus, many books have important passages underlined, major themes listed at the beginnings of chapters, and clarifications written in the margins. The copy of Aeneid that I read not only contained thematic annotations from one student, but also a number of unintentionally funny comments from another. This made reading the epic poem, the sort of which spends five pages describing Aeneas's shield, much more entertaining than it might have otherwise been.

    For example, beside a section in which the longevity and glory of the Roman Empire was prophesied, the befuddled student wrote, But Rome fell- did Virgil know this? Ah yes, Virgil the time-traveling super-poet who cleverly peppered his verse with chronologically ironic statements. The same annotator observed that Dido's downfall is that she's too nice (apparently, feuding goddesses had nothing to do with it) and produced a mind-boggling series of rhetorical queries that demonstrate the importance of using context when deciphering pronouns in poetry (hint: the closest noun isn't always the antecedent).

    Sadly, the annotator only made it about a third of the way through the poem before either realizing that he/she could glean the crucial bits from lecture/Wikipedia or dropping the class. As a result, I was forced to pencil in similar comments in order to make it through the rest of the poem. The moral of this story is that though you may get the occasional bonehead marking up your book, reading a book that others have commented on previously gives an undeniable sense of camraderie. As in any interaction with strangers, you may be happily surprised, disappointed, or surprised into laughter. I highly recommend the experience to all. 442 La fortuna favorece a los valientes.

    La Eneida, este poema épico inmortal surgido de la genialidad de Publio Virgilio Marón, es considerado uno de las obras clásicas fundacionales de la literatura universal que lo relaciona directamente con los aedos griegos, especialmente Homero, pero que en como continuación histórica con la guerra de Troya tiene también conexiones con algunas de las tragedias de Esquilo y Sófocles.
    Virgilio, este poeta incomparable, comparte dos detalles muy interesantes con el genio checo Franz Kafka. Esta, su obra cumbre está inacabada luego de once años de gestación a los que dedicara los últimos años de su vida, incluso ya muy enfermo, de la misma manera que Kafka, no termina sus novelas El castillo o El proceso, Virgilio deja trunco el final de la Eneida que le arrebata la muerte cuando lo sorprende a los 51 años.
    Por el otro lado, también comparte con Kafka una decisión que fue desoída: Kafka, ya gravemente enfermo de tuberculosis le pide a Max Brod, su amigo y albacea que queme toda su obra, orden que Brod desobedece para legarnos todo lo que hoy leemos de este autor.
    Lo mismo hace Vario, amigo y también albacea de Virgilio quien ya en su lecho de muerte le pide que queme todo lo escrito sobre la Eneida, poema que el poeta acostumbraba a recitarle al emperador Augusto.
    Cuando uno lee la Eneida sabe de antemano que si quiere realmente tener una idea global de lo que allí sucede, deberá, en lo posible leer previamente la Teogonía de Hesíodo que explica cómo se gestaron los distintos dioses del Olimpo y como éstos, luego de relacionarse con los mortales fueron engendrando a los distintos héroes de los poemas.
    De esta forma, llegamos a saber que Eneas es fruto de la unión de la diosa Venus (o Afrodita para los griegos) con su padre Anquises como de la misma manera Aquiles nace de la unión de la diosa Tetis con el mortal Peleo, mientras que con Ulises esto no sucede aunque es importante aclarar la íntima relación que el héroe de la Odisea tiene con Palas Atenea.
    Siempre los dioses interceden ante un destino posiblemente desafortunado para cambiar las cosas y esto también sucederá en la Eneida, ya que constantemente Eneas es protegido por Venus en distintos momentos, desde la huida de Troya hasta el arribo a las costas de Hesperia, como se denominaba antiguamente a Italia hasta cuando comienzan los combates contra los latinos bajo la orden del caudillo Turno, quien a su vez tendrá el apoyo de otra diosa, Juno, quien generará en él y en sus súbditos la constante violencia y ánimos para ir a la guerra, como lo hace también el dios Ares (Marte) con Héctor en la Ilíada.
    Es que Juno, celosa de los troyanos hará lo imposible para impedir que Eneas funde una nueva Troya en Italia, además por haber sido desairada por el mortal Paris eligiendo a Venus y por el desaire amoroso que le propina Ganímedes con un príncipe troyano.
    Pero Venus no es la única diosa que formará parte de todo este juego de traiciones, discordias y peleas. Otros dioses como Júpiter (Zeus) o Vulcano quien, de la misma manera que hizo con Ulises forjará la armadura y escudo de Eneas para la batalla con Turno tendrán incidencia directa.
    Así, todo estará servido para la guerra. Pero primero debemos aclarar que la Eneida consta de dos partes bien marcadas.
    En primer lugar, luego de la destrucción de Illión, como se conocía también a Troya, Eneas escapa con su padre Anquises a cuestas y su hijo Ascanio de la mano, perdiendo en ella a su esposa mortal, Creúsa. A partir de allí, arribará a Cartago donde tendrá un tormentoso affaire con la reina, Dido. Estos hechos tienen un trasfondo que le acarrearán más desgracias al héroe teucro.
    Es que el escape de Eneas hacia Italia tiene el mismo tenor que el de Ulises volviendo a Ítaca en la Odisea. Recordemos que son varios los poemas y tragedias en donde se narran regresos odiseicos luego de la caída de Troya. Lo mismo sucede con el regreso de Agamenón en la tragedia de Esquilo y en la Orestíada, narrado por el mismo aedo.
    Luego de vivir las peores vicisitudes, de la persecución de Juno, la muerte de muchos de sus guerreros, de estar sometidos a tempestades que destruyen sus naves llega a Italia y es aquí donde comienza la segunda parte, que tiene en el relato, una similitud muy cercana a la Ilíada, cuando los latinos entran en guerra con los teucros. Los cuatro libros finales de los doce que contiene la Eneida relatan estos hechos bélicos.
    Es clave haber leído la Ilíada, ya que la descripción de las batallas serán prácticamente iguales a los del poema de Homero. Por momentos, las manera en que lo describe Virgilio es tan cruento que parece que uno como lector está viendo esa violencia con la que latinos y teucros se masacran en el campo de batalla. La sangre salpica por doquier a todos los que son muertos por su enemigo, las lanzas acribillan cuanto pecho se encuentran y se parten cabezas hasta el cuello o se degüellan hombres sin la menor compasión.
    Parece que Nikolái Gógol se inspiró en la Ilíada y la Eneida para contarnos de manera tan explícita y tan parecida lo que sucede en el enfrentamiento entre los cosacos ucranianos y los polacos en su novela Tarás Bulba, lo que demuestra la inspiración que poetas como Homero o Virgilio generaban en los grandes escritores de la era moderna.
    Otro aspecto muy importante a tener en cuenta es que el eje y el centro de la Eneida reside en el libro VI, cuando Eneas desciende a los Infiernos para encontrarse con Anquises, su padre fallecido. De la misma manera que cuando Ulises baja al Hades, Eneas debe atravesar los distintos lugares del Infierno como lo hace el inmenso Dante Alighieri quien durante gran parte de la Divina Comedia elige para esa travesía precisamente a... Virgilio. Nadie más indicado que el poeta latino para acompañarlo en ese oscuro camino.
    A diferencia de lo narrado en La Divina Commedia, Virgilio nos explica cómo es el Infierno de una forma más reducida y como si todos los lugares estuvieran muy juntos unos de otro.
    Eneas es acompañado por la profetiza Sibila, quien le muestra y explica qué es cada cosa en el Averno y que sucede con las almas que están allí.
    Lo que Dante describirá con todo lujo de detalles es mostrado a Eneas rápidamente, tal es el caso de Caronte, el barquero que traslada las almas por el río Aqueronte, la laguna Estigia y el lago del Leteo, en donde Eneas también debe entrar para olvidar parte de lo vivido.
    Ya en los libros XI y XII se desarrolla la batalla final y da la sensación de que Virgilio traza una comparación con la Ilíada para describir el enfrentamiento más importante de todos entre Eneas y Turno, como lo hiciera Homero con Aquiles y Héctor.
    Es claro el sentimiento de homenaje a Homero como también la inspiración que el poeta griego le infundó para continuar la historia en su propio poema.
    Comparando la Ilíada como la Odisea, tanto Eneas como Aquiles enfrentan a su adversario con el objeto de vengar la muerte de Patroclo en el caso de Aquiles contra Héctor como la muerte de Palante a manos de Turno en lo que respecta a Eneas.
    Lamentablemente y al quedar inconclusa la Eneida, nunca sabremos que sucede después de este enfrentamiento del que no voy a revelar el ganador para resguardar a aquel lector que quiera embarcarse en la aventura del bravo y valiente guerrero Eneas, cuyas hazañas han quedado inmortalizadas en el oro de las letras universales gracias a Virgilio, uno de los padres de la literatura.
    Quisieron los hados que así fuera… 442 انه ايد و مختارنامه!

    مختارنامه رو ديديد؟ ديديد چقدر جنگ هاش تصنعیه؟ پر از حركات خشك و نمايشى، انگار نه انگار كه اون جا جنگه و دو نفر دارن با خشم و وحشت به قصد كشت تيغ تيز روانه ى سينه و گلوى هم مى كنن. نه وحشتى، نه عرقى، نه به نفس نفس افتادنى، نه تيرى كه توى گوشت گير مى كنه و بيرون نمياد، نه لخته خون كف كرده ى جارى از گلويى...

    فكر مى كنم بخشى اين ها به خاطر اينه كه عوامل اثر نه خودشون در جنگى حضور داشتن تا واقعيتش رو ببينن (طبيعتاً) و نه تخيل قدرتمندى داشتن كه بتونن جنون آشوبناك يه جنگ رو پيش خودشون تصوير كنن. و ويرژيل قطعاً يكى از اين دو رو داشته: يا تجربه ى مستقيم جنگ، يا تخيل قدرتمندى كه جايگزين تمام عيارى براى تجربه شده. اين حرف خيلى بيشتر در مورد هومر صادقه، كه ويرژيل پيروش محسوب ميشه.

    انه ايد و ايلياد

    هومر شاعر يونانى حدود سه هزار سال قبل، ماجراى جنگ ده ساله ى يونان و تروى رو كه به نابودى تروى انجاميد، به شعر سرود. حدود هزار سال بعد، ويرژيل شاعر رومى دنباله اى براى ايلياد سرود و تعريف كرد كه چطور مهاجران جنگ زده ى تروى، در جستجوى خونه اى جديد، تمدن روم رو در ايتاليا بنياد گذاشتن.

    حماسه ى هومر اون قدرها عناصر ملّى نداره، و هومر به يك اندازه از تروجان ها و يونانى ها جانبدارى مى كنه، همون طور كه خدايان بعضى طرفدار اين گروهن و بعضى طرفدار اون گروه. اما حماسه ى ويرژيل شايد به تبع شكل حكومت روم، رنگى شديداً ملّى گرايانه پيدا كرده، جداى از موضوع (ماجراى بنيانگذاران روم) در توصيف ها و شخصيت پردازى ها و ماجراها و پيشگويى ها و رفتار خدايان، جانبدارى مطلقى به نفع تروجان ها (بنيانگذاران روم) ديده ميشه و به ندرت خصوصيت مثبتى از دشمناشون نشون داده ميشه.

    اين خصوصيت، و نداشتن خط داستانى پيوسته و جذاب، باعث ميشه كه حماسه ى رومى انه ايد چند مرتبه پايين تر از همتاى يونانى ش قرار بگيره، هر چند هنوز در اوج مى درخشه.

    خلاصه کتاب برای یادآوری شخصی


    Impossible to rank a book that is so important, that has so many problems, that holds moments of deep and beautiful simile and metaphor, that treats its lead with shocking inconsistency, whose ending is an eruption of modern plot that redeems the whole book.

    The Ferry translation is quick and good and worth noting.

    There is staggering overlap with The Iliad and the Odyssey throughout- Cyclops and Scylla and Charybdis were surprises here, as is the rip off of the in media res structure. We have storms (Poseidon as savior, instead of tormentor was an interesting twist), a separation of forces, a host. But everything seems condensed .

    Dido, as you might hope, pops off the page. That amazing section on page 17 that scans over her dead husband was so unbelievably Hamlet, and there was something tragic about Cupid's bewitching her:
    And Cupid, to please his Acidalian mother,
    Begins, little by little, to erase
    From Dido's mind the image of Sychaeus,
    And to substitute a living passion in
    A heart and soul long unaccustomed to love. (33)

    But as with the windmills in Don Quixote, she is too quickly gone.

    The Roman propaganda is interesting throughout but in some ways, it is less pronounced than I would have thought, save for one outrageous description of a piece of armor. It put me in mind of just Grossman's Stalingrad (it's great). To get it by the Soviet censors he had to (among many other things) add a 40 page section about how heroic coal miners are - and I ended up fascinated by that section, in its lack of nuance and its propulsion, in how a talented writer operates in restrictive systems.

    The second half, in Italy, is a more human-oriented text, and somewhat ridiculous. The book's supporting characters, especially the lovers Nisus and Euryalus, are stronger than the lead. The book is rarely a page turner, but it is incredibly worth your time. It is very, very different than you might expect.

    Two things: The treatment of the underworld is gorgeous, in Book 6. It is, of course, Dantean pre Dante. Critic Madeline Miller points out that when Aeneid is in hell, after he finishes admiring that same glorious pageant of future Roman heroes, he finds himself before two gates. One is made of horn and is, Virgil tells us, for “true shades.” The other, made of ivory, is for “false dreams.” And Aeneas, founder of the gleaming vision of Roman history we have just seen, leaves through the latter.

    Borges was preoccupied by this distinction too, and I wonder if there are some hints here of the undermining that I feel is at work in The Aeneid some impulse to attack the very root of the project, of fiction, of the need for Roman propaganda in a poem, even of the need for empire and cultural assimilation.

    Which brings me to the ending. I'll spoiler tag.

    442 “What god can help me tell so dread a story?
    Who could describe that carnage in a song - “

    Well, the answer of course is Virgil, a poet of the era of Augustus’ Rome. Why does he write it? Many literary critics have condemned the Aeneid for being state propaganda. Of course it is. Openly, proudly so! Many others have condemned it for connecting strongly to other epic poems of the Ancient world, most notably of course Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. Of course it does. Openly, proudly so!

    The Aeneid is a perfect example of a change of imperial power and education from one dynasty or area in the world to another, a “translatio imperii et studii”. Whenever empires rise, and are in need of legitimacy, they make sure to incorporate literature, art and other cultural achievements of suppressed or defeated powers, thus creating a fictitious historical connection that justifies their claims to greatness and world dominance.

    The Greek culture has been widely exploited to establish a tradition of unbroken rule and lawful power in Europe, and the Aeneid is an early example of fiction supporting the dynastic claims of a whole people.

    Constructed as a sequel to the Iliad, and thus taking place at the same time as the Odyssey, it tells the story of Trojan refugee Aeneas and his family, who are on a quest to find a new home for themselves after surviving the destruction of Troy by the Greeks. After many adventures, mirroring Ulysses’ problematic navigation in the tricky waters of the Mediterranean, they land in the country where “fate” tells them to found a new empire based on Aeneas’ descendants. Here they turn from refugees to usurpers of power and fight a bloody war to finally declare themselves victors over the native peoples in the area which will become known as Rome, or Italy.

    So far, so good. Translatio imperii, check!

    Translatio studii?

    Roman culture is in many ways a direct copy and paste of earlier Greek achievements, and their Olympus is mostly identical, just renamed. But there are peculiarities within the Aeneid that give it a specific flavour and make it enjoyable to read.

    For example, Aeneas’ visit to the Underworld is hilarious, and he meets both past and future celebrities of his tribe. The modern reader may wonder how life in the Underworld works out practically, with Creusa, Dido, and eventually also Lavinia all joined together in their love for Aeneas? Is polygamy acceptable in the Underworld, if it is only practised as serial monogamy on earth? But those are amusing, theological reflections that the heroes do not dwell on.

    Much more interesting are the godly powers that support or oppose Aeneas’ cause, with Venus, his mother, being his most ardent advocate in Olympus, and with Juno being his most hateful enemy. A combination that puts Jupiter in a pickle, of course.

    Aeneas manages to have weapons of mass destruction delivered by the joint effort of Venus and Vulcan, and it is of peculiar interest to archaeologists that his shield carries the future of Rome written down for him: a prophetic text! Or a wonderfully amusing way to establish legitimacy through translatio historiae? Rewriting history when needed for political purposes is not an invention of Orwell’s 1984. Dante later added his own journey to the Underworld under the guidance of experienced traveller Virgil - translatio studii - as illustrated in The Divine Comedy, and beautifully painted by Delacroix, in another simultaneous leap forwards and backwards in history, creating connections between times and characters:

    What made me read the ancient text, and stick it out until the end, despite being frustrated at times when the war turned into repetitive, graphically described slaughter, involving heads cut open so that brains are split in half, and any other imaginable mutilation of human bodies, over page after page?

    There is the interesting question of heroic ideal, alive and terrifyingly deadly still in World War I and II, of “Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori”, the famous line from Virgil’s contemporary Horace’s Odes. One young man in the Aeneid puts it quite bluntly: if I win, I will bring home lots of booty, and if I fall, I will be an immortal hero. Either way, my father will be proud.

    There are the relationships between men and women, and the role of women in general. Camilla, the warrior virgin modelled on Amazons Hippolyta or Penthesilea, the mighty Carthaginian queen Dido, who has a strong mind of her own, and Lavinia, the booty for the winner in the war, are all different representatives of ancient women’s roles and status in society. For the modern reader, the goddesses in the Olympian council are more amusing types, playing the political advocates of the causes they support, fearlessly, adamantly, and in eternal frustration over the slow pace of the action, and over the cacophony of a polytheistic assembly, all with equal right to speak and lobby - and to which they add incessantly. Quite like international committees nowadays, weighing different claims, needs and justice against each other!

    General verdict: if you love mythology, historical processes as mirrored in fiction, graphic war scenes, unhappy love, and stormy seas, as well as the neverending story of human fight for power and legitimacy, then the Aeneid is highly recommended.

    I enjoyed it all, and will close with a bow to Dido, my favourite ancient, tragic heroine so far! She did not really get a chance, representing Carthage. Her suicide was a necessary construction to symbolise the wars to come:

    Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, said Cato, and Dido was just one of many to suffer from Roman power play. A mighty queen, nonetheless! 442 TO CARTHAGE THEN I CAME, WHERE A CAULDRON OF UNHOLY LOVES
    The Waste Land

    The Aeneid

    YOU can Conquer - now, isn’t that a nifty quick analysis of how faith works? That’s Virgil talking!

    Faith in oneself... or Faith in a Higher Being?

    Let’s take a closer look...

    Virgil left off writing this masterpiece a mere twenty years before the Star appeared over ancient Bethlehem.

    And, of course, the Aeneid gave the worldly Romans hope for a brighter future at the same time, when their history was beginning its long, slow decline into moral chaos. It inspired them to believe that a semi-divine Trojan named Aeneas had given them ideals worth dying for!

    With not much respect due to Troy’s ancient conquerors - the Greeks.


    Sure, it was political propaganda commissioned by Augustus, through Virgil’s noble mentor Maecenas.

    But don’t forget that many of the same Roman readers of this runaway bestseller were fathers of the first Italian Christian converts.

    The domino effect was about to play its hand.

    Early Christian apologists, looking for grist for their mills, would soon see in Virgil’s groundbreaking ideas about a blissful afterlife in the Elysian Fields - for ordinary good people, as well as Homer’s heroes - an announcement of the Lord’s freely-offered - and freely-withheld - salvation.

    A salvation for which Aeneas must forsake the fleshpot of Carthage...

    And did I say Homer? That’s another thing...

    Approximately concurrent with all of this was the disastrous destruction by fire of Alexandria’s priceless library - the last detailed link with the pre-Roman Greek world.

    So, now, books like this one were suddenly a prime source for imaginative myth-making.

    It is hard to imagine such inspired living as the Knights of the Round Table, or early books of such high-mindedness as Piers Plowman or Sir Gawain and the Green Knight existing without the nobility of the Aeneid.

    (But what about the loss of higher mathematics - and calculus - of the Ottoman Empire, against whom Europe Crusaded? Enemies don’t share secrets, alas.)

    But how about the late medieval romances... and how much Latin magic is in the Holy Grail?

    The Greeks - so sybaritic in their literature and such a springboard in their stories for the imagination - had little or no influence on our serious Medieval European ancestors.

    The very dearth of Hellenic playfulness gave our ancestors their dour mindset. Perhaps in an age of starting from scratch again and rebuilding, that grim mindset was best.

    So, the popular faith and imagination of the Middle Ages derived largely from books like this!

    Even Aeneas’ triumphant victory over Turnus was seen by clerics as a divine allegory of the victory over evil.

    And who’s to say they were so WRONG, though?

    But, with that, Church censorship was also beginning, and Roman freedoms were eventually going to be curtailed.

    But freedom has radically different restrictions as Age progresses to Age, and while we postmodernists seem to have fewer, we in fact have migrated to much less privacy.

    Every age has its manner of dealing with anarchy. Ours is surveillance.

    But to the Church, MORAL Anarchy was the most perilous type of chaos, thanks to Nero and Caligula. And for the future of European civilization the Church seems in hindsight to have been right.

    It’s like your parents weeding out any bad influences on you as you grew up - can THAT be such a bad thing? Most good parents do it - or used to. It’s like pruning back your rose bushes, in the interests of their future health.

    Sure, there’ll be some Major adjustments for the kids later on, but if they have an active intelligence, they’ll catch up in plenty of time, though the transition from naïve innocence to cosmic disappointment is vast.

    And without the firm foothold of faith well nigh impossible.

    And note well the conclusion to Book VI of the Aeneid, in which Virgil shows the only auspicious door out of the Underworld: the Gate of Horn, and NOT the Gate of Ivory... the former symbolizing Cosmic Disappointment.

    Now, most people on this planet prefer a life of Ivory (physical riches and spiritual materialism) over a life of Horn (disappointment and penance). That’s our natural and very Fallen nature.

    The origin of the ancient symbol of the Horn lies in its roots in the misfortune of being cuckolded. A young buck drives away his rivals with his horn. Ever notice than when a cuckold comes onstage in a Mozart opera, his musical genius symbolized that fact by having the French Horn play a sybaritic riff? His nascent disappointment becomes comic to the audience.

    Similarly, could the seed of a great religion of love and compassion have taken root without the concurrent sowing of the nobility that the Aeneid has in men’s minds? And moral nobility is born in cosmic ethical disappointment.

    Could Christianity have spread like wildfire throughout the fallen Empire... without it? For that’s what the spoiled, self-indulgent emperors were to believers - a cosmic disappointment. But that disappointment was to Virgil the RIGHT WAY to Heaven.

    Sure, I know I’m REACHING a bit to make my points.

    But whatever your own views, the Aeneid is the great Medieval Desert Island Book - one of the only great ancient imaginative yarns the serious, and violent, early Middle Ages really had.

    A true oasis for the souls of those who were lost and confused in that scattered moral debris before the Fall of the Colossus that was the Roman Empire:

    And an ethical bedrock!

    All roads lead to ROME?

    Not on your life, for this sententious-sounding old guy!

    So I’ll just continue to walk the straight & narrow path with my old pal Virgil. 442 Æneis = Aeneid, Virgil

    The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

    The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed.

    تاریخ نخستین خوانش: روز نوزدهم ماه نوامبر سال 1991میلادی

    عنوان: انه اید؛ اثر: ویرژیل؛ برگردان: میرجلال الدین کزازی؛ مشخصات نشر تهران، نشر مرکز، 1381، در 479ص، شابکها یک9643057151؛ دو9643051099؛ سه9789643057152؛ چاپ دوم 1375، چاپ سوم 1383، چاپ ششم 1387؛ واژه نامه دارد، نمایه دارد؛ موضوع شعر حماسی لاتینی از نویسنگان ایتالیا - سده 01پیش از میلاد

    منظومه‌ ای حماسی، که «ویرژیل» شاعر «روم» باستان، آن را در پایان سده ی نخست پیش از میلاد، و به زبان لاتین سروده است، «ویرژیل» راهنمای سفر «دانته» در کتابهای دوزخ و برزخ «کمدی الهی» نیز هست؛ «سرودهای شبانی»، و «سرودهای روستایی» را نیز، ایشان سروده است

    داستان «انه اید» همان پیآمدهای نبرد «تروا»، پس از تازش «یونانیان» است؛ «ویرژیل» در «انه اید»؛ داستان «انه» را میسراید؛ و آنچه را که او، پس از رهایی از مرگ در «تروا»، در سفرهای پرماجرایش، برای رسیدن به «لاتیوم»، سرزمینی که به او نوید داده شده، میآزماید، و از سر میگذراند؛ سرگذشت «انه» یا «انه اید» «ویرژیل»، در غرب، سومین داستان بزرگ پهلوانی است، پس از «ایلیاد و اودیسه»ی «هومر» «یونانی»؛ «انه اید» در ادبیات کلاسیک «رومی (رمی)»، همان جایگاهی را دارد، که «ایلیاد» و «ادیسه» در ادبیات کلاسیک «یونان» دارد، آن را میتوان دنباله ای بر «ایلیاد هومر» نیز برشمرد، «ویرژیل»، «انه اید» را از آنجا آغاز میکند، که «هومر»، «ایلیاد» را با ویرانی و سوختن «تروا» به پایان میبرد؛ «انه اید» همان حماسه ی ملی «رومی»ها نیز هست؛ «انه» بزرگزاده ای «تروایی» ست، که تبار مادریش به خدایان میرسید، و پس از تباهی «تروا»، او سفری پرماجرا را بر پهنه ی دریاها آغاز میکند، به «کارتاژ»، و سپس به «ایتالیا» میرود، مردمان لاتین را به پیروزی میرساند، و فرما��روای مردمی میشود که شایستگی «ترواییان» را، با توانستنهای لاتینیان در هم آمیخته اند؛ «رومی»ها «انه» را نیای «رومولوس»، بنیادگذار شهر «رم» میشناسند، و میشناختند؛ «ویرژیل» از آن داستان کهن، حماسه ای پرشور ساختند، که در روزگار امپراتوری، پشتوانه ای تاریخی و اسطوره ای برای «رمی»ها شد؛

    کتاب اول: پس از جنگ «ایلیون» و سوختن شهر «تروی»، اهالی آن به هر سوی کوچیدند؛ «انئاس» و یارانش به سوی «ایتالیا» بادبان کشیدند؛ اما ایزدبانو «یونو» که به سبب حسادت دیرین به زیبایی «ونوس» ایزدبانوی زیبایی، دشمن «تروجان‌»ها بود، کشتی ایشان را دستخوش طوفان گردانید، تا غرقشان کند؛ «ونوس» که مادر «انئاس» نیز هست، به یاری پسرش شتافت، و کشتی او را به ساحل «کارتاژ (نام شهری باستانی در شمال «آفریقا - کشور تونس ‌امروزی» انداخت؛ «انئاس» و یارانش به نزد «دیدون»، شهبانوی «کارتاژ» رفتند، و از ایشان برای رفتن به «ایتالیا» یاری طلبیدند؛ «ونوس» از بیم آنکه «یونو» باز هم دخالت کند، و جان «انئاس» و یارانش را، به خطر اندازد، پسر دیگر خود «کوپیدو»، ایزد عشق را روانه می‌کند، تا در هیئت کودکی حامل هدایا، در مجلس بزم بر زانوی شهبانوی «کارتاژ» نشسته، عشق «انئاس» را در سینه ی او بدمد؛ شهبانو «دیدون» که اینک عاشق «انئاس» شده، از او درخواست می‌کند که داستان جنگ «تروی» را بازگو کند

    کتاب دوم: «انئاس»، داستان واپسین روز جنگ «تروی» را بازمی‌گوید: «یونانیان» اسبی چوبی را، با دلاورترین مردان خود پر می‌کنند، و بر در «تروی» گذاشته، ساحل را ترک می‌کنند؛ جاسوسی «یونانی» در لباس یک فراری، به «تروجان‌»ها می‌گوید، که این اسب پیشکش «یونانیان» به ایزدبانویی است، که به معبدش توهین کرده ‌اند، و خود به سرعت به «یونان» بازگشته ‌اند، تا تندیس خدایان خود را همراه آورند تا مگر به شفاعت آن‌ها از خشم ایزدبانو در امان بمانند؛ و اگر «تروجان»‌ها آن اسب پیشکشی را، وارد شهر خود کنند، خشم ایزدبانو بر «یونانیان» خواهد گرفت؛ «تروجان‌»ها اسب را وارد شهر می‌کنند، و نیمه شب، مردان «یونانی» از آن به بیرون ریخته، «تروی» را به آتش می‌کشند؛ «انئاس» با دلیری می‌جنگد، و در میانه ی نبرد، چشمش به «هلن» زیباروی، که مسبب تمام این فجایع است می‌افتد، و قصد کشتنش را می‌کند، اما مادرش «ونوس» او را بازمی‌دارد، و او را به حفظ خانواده و گریز از شهر می‌خواند؛ «انئاس» با خانواده اش، و کسانی که سپس به او می‌پیوندند، از «تروی» ویران می‌گریزد

    کتاب سوم: «انئاس» و یارانش در جستجوی سرزمینی که شهر تازه ی خود را در آن بنا کنند، نخست به «تراس» می‌روند، اما وقتی «انئاس» می‌خواهد، گیاهی خونچکان را بکند، آوازی از بن آن برمی‌آید، و خود را روح یکی از یاران «انئاس» معرفی می‌کند، که به دست «تراسیان» کشته شده‌ است و این گیاه از جسد او رسته است. «انئاس» از ترس خیانت «تراسیان» از «تراس» می‌گریزد، و خدایان او را به «ایتالیا» رهنمون می‌شوند؛ در راه «ایتالیا» در جزیره ‌های گوناگون سرگردان می‌شود، گاه با «هارپی»ها کرکسانی با چهرهٔ دختران، روبرو می‌شود، گاه با «کوکلوپس»ها، غول‌های یک چشم، و گاه از «خاروپیدس» هیولای دریا می‌گریزد؛ سرگذشت‌هایی که پیش از این «اولیس» از سر گذرانده؛ داستان «انئاس» با رسیدن به «کارتاژ» پایان می‌یابد

    کتاب چهارم: «انئاس» و «دیدون» شهبانوی «کارتاژ»، سرمست از دلدادگی، با یکدیگر عشق می‌ورزند؛ «انئاس» از ادامه ی سفر منصرف می‌شود، و این خبر به «ژوپیتر» می‌رسد؛ «ژوپیتر»، «انئاس» را باز به سوی «ایتالیا» و پادشاهی موعود می‌خواند؛ «انئاس» بی‌درنگ «کارتاژ» را ترک می‌کند، و «دیدون» شهبانوی «کارتاژ» خود را می‌کشد؛ این چنین دشمنی دیرینه ی «روم» و «کارتاژ» آغاز می‌شود

    کتاب پنجم: «انئاس» و یارانش به «سیسیل» می‌رسند، و برای بزرگداشت خدایان، مسابقاتی برگزار می‌کنند؛ در همین حین زنان تروجان خسته از سفر بی پایان، به قصد این که در سیسیل بمانند، و باز سرگردان دریاها نشوند، کشتی‌ها را به آتش می‌کشند؛ «ژوپیتر» بارانی می‌فرستد و بعضی از کشتی‌ها را نجات می‌دهد؛ از آنجا که تعداد کشتی‌ها کاسته شده، «انئاس» ناگزیر پیران و ناتوانان را، در «سیسیل» باقی می‌گذارد و با زبده‌ترین مردان و زنانش راهی «ایتالیا» می‌شود

    کتاب ششم: «انئاس» به راهنمایی «سیبیل»، راهبه ی غیبگو، به جهان زیرین سفر می‌کند، تا روح پدرش را ببیند؛ پس از گذر از رودخانه ی ورودی جهان زیرین، از میان ارواح سرگردان (کسانی که خودکشی کرده ‌اند یا بدون گور مانده ‌اند) می‌گذرد، و روح دیدون شهبانوی «کارتاژ» را می‌بیند؛ سپس از برابر دروازه ی دوزخ می‌گذرد، و راهبه که راهنمای اوست، شمه ‌ای از عذاب‌های دوزخیان را باز‌گو میکند؛ سپس به بهشت می‌رسد، و در آنجا با روح پدرش دیدار می‌کند؛ پدرش روح فرزندانی که قرار است از نسل «انئاس» پدید آیند، و «روم» را به بزرگی برسانند به او نشان داده، و او را با مژده ی بزرگی، به ادامه ی سفرش به سوی «ایتالیا» ترغیب می‌کند؛ «انئاس» بازمی‌گردد و بی‌درنگ به سوی «ایتالیا» بادبان می‌کشد

    کتاب هفتم: «انئاس» به «ایتالیا» می‌رسد، و قصد آن دارد که با دختر «لاتینوس» پادشاه «لاتین»ها - از اقوام ساکن ایتالیا - ازدواج کند، تا بر توانش در آن دیار افزوده شود؛ اما ایزدبانو «یونو» که از پیروزی «انئاس»، و سازگاری سرنوشت با او، خشمگین است، می‌کوشد که این پیروزی را؛ هرچه بیشتر تیره سازد؛ پس با یاری ایزدبانو «آلکتوی» دوزخی، جنگ و خون‌ریزی را، در بین «ایتالیایی‌»ها و «تروجان‌»ها می‌پراکند؛ از جمله «ترونوس» پادشاه «روتولی»ها - از اقوام ساکن «ایتالیا» - که قرار بود با دختر «لاتینوس» ازدواج کند، خشمگین به جنگ «انئاس» می‌آید

    کتاب هشتم: «انئاس» برای رودررویی با «ایتالیایی»ها، با دشمن آن‌ها پادشاه «اواندر» هم پیمان می‌شود؛ «اواندر» برای او تاریخچه سرزمین «ایتالیا» را بازمی‌گوید: از دورانی که «ساتورن» مردمان وحشی آن دیار را قانون بخشید، و بر ایشان حکومت کرد، تا دورانی که «هرکول» دیو هولناک ساکن در آن دیار را کشت؛ پس از «اواندر»، دشمنان دیگر «ایتالیا» نیز با «انئاس» متحد می‌شوند؛ «ونوس» از شوی خود، «ولکان» ایزد آتش و صنعت، می‌خواهد، که برای فرزندش «انئاس»، اسلحه و زره بسازد، و «ولکان» می‌پذیرد، و بر آن‌ها تمام تاریخ آینده «روم» را حکاکی می‌کند، و «انئاس» سرنوشت نسل‌های آینده را بر دوش می‌اندازد

    کتاب نهم: «ایتالیایی»ها - «لاتین‌»ها و «روتولی»‌ها - از غیبت «انئاس» استفاده کرده شهر او را محاصره می‌کنند؛ جنگی سخت درمی‌گیرد

    کتاب دهم: «انئاس با هم پیمانانش بازمی‌گردد؛ سپاهیان «ایتالیایی» از دوسو محاصره می‌شوند، و نبرد به سود «تروجان»‌ها می‌گردد؛ ایزدبانو «یونو» از «ژوپیتر» می‌خواهد، که لااقل «ترونوس» پادشاه «روتولی»‌ها که از تیره خدایان است، جان به در برد؛ پس ابری را به شکل «انئاس» می‌سازد، و «ترونوس» به خیال اینکه «انئاس» را دنبال می‌کند، ابر را تعقیب کرده، به یک کشتی وارد می‌شود؛ کشتی حرکت کرده از صحنه ی جنگ دور می‌شود

    کتاب یازدهم: «تروجان‌»ها به شهر «لاتین»‌ها یورش برده، محاصره کنندگان خود را محاصره می‌کنند؛ جنگ درمی‌گیرد و عاقبت بنا بر آن می‌شود که «انئاس» و «ترونوس» نبرد تن به تن کنند و نتیجه جنگ را تعیین نمایند

    کتاب دوازدهم: نبرد تن به تن درمی‌گیرد، و «انئاس»، «ترونوس» را به قتل می‌رساند.

    تاریخ بهنگام رسانی 04/07/1399هجری خورشیدی؛ 03/06/1400هجری خورشیدی؛ ا. شربیانی 442 I’m a huge fan of propaganda, but I think I may not be a fan of fan fic. I was going into this with the hope that it would be fun, extreme, Latin propaganda, but The Aeneid is really more Trojan War fan fic, IMO. It’s the Phantom Menace to The Iliad’s Empire Strikes Back. It is seriously lame. I think Akira Kurosawa could have made a pretty decent movie of it because he likes to have people frenzy. There’s a lot of frenzying here. The dudes are all chest pound, blooooood, and the chicks are all hair pull, frenzy, waaaaaail. And Aeneas is such a dweeb about the name-dropping. Like, “Oh, did I mention that Venus is my mom? Oh, did I tell you how freaking hot I am? Yeah, I was totally there when Odysseus scammed the Cyclops.” Give me a freaking break. Did you scam the Cyclops? No. Get over yourself.

    This is what happens when you start a series, and then someone else wants to capitalize on your story. It’s the fifth season of The West Wing or the seventh season of The Gilmore Girls or all the Jane Austen / Jane Eyre sequels and prequels. It just doesn’t work. Find your own story! I’m looking at you, Virgil. Not that I’m against people using storylines that someone else has used. That’s almost inevitable (and, of course, Shakespeare is a good argument for being okay with stealing). But, there is a line. I’m not positive where it is. This story crossed it. And then don’t even get me started about Dante. WHY?! Virgil’s got his guys running into Homer’s guys, and then Dante’s running into Virgil? It’s just so presumptuous. I guess, it’s like, go ahead and steal a really wonderful storyline if you have something to add to it. But don’t think that your SUPER LAME storyline is going to suddenly turn wonderful because you drop a character from a good story into it.

    And there are some seriously weird details to this story. For example, Venus is this guy’s mom, but she doesn’t raise him to know not to pull a George Costanza in running away from the Greeks? Dude. It just takes a second to wait for your wife, you loser. I mean, I’m no great fan of Venus to begin with, but that’s just weird. It seems like she would have taken a minute to say, Don't trample people running away from your enemies. Maybe it never occurred to her he'd be so lame.

    And then the business with Dido was just annoying. She’s the queen of all the land, has been through hell, wherein her eeeevil brother killed her seemingly pretty awesome husband, and then when Aeneas says to Dido, “btw, it was great sleeping with you, but I have a lot of heads to chop off for no particular reason, so I should prolly get going,” she goes all Kathy Bates in Misery all of a sudden. Except lamer because she’s wailing and self-mutilating instead of taking it out on him. It’s just awkward to watch. Girl needs a sassy gay friend. And none of these people are as cool as they think they are.

    And the rest of the book is basically one long chest pound. I guess there’s the part where he goes to Hades, and lo, he knows folk there. I’m kind of bitter about the whole thing because Juno’s so funny and great in The Iliad and such a loser here. Again, Akira Kurosawa probably could have turned it into a pretty decent movie. I don’t really get the frenzying thing, but Kurosawa seemed to have liked it. And, if you like people to run around, chopping limbs off and then whining and blustering for a while, you might really click with this book. What I’m saying, though, is if you haven’t read The Iliad, that’s where it’s at. I recommend, for best results, reading it in a hammock. 442

    The Aeneid – thrilling, terrifying and poignant in equal measure – has inspired centuries of artists, writers and musicians.

    Virgil’s epic tale tells the story of Aeneas, a Trojan hero, who flees his city after its fall, with his father Anchises and his young son Ascanius – for Aeneas is destined to found Rome and father the Roman race. As Aeneas journeys closer to his goal, he must first prove his worth and attain the maturity necessary for such an illustrious task. He battles raging storms in the Mediterranean, encounters the fearsome Cyclopes, falls in love with Dido, Queen of Carthage, travels into the Underworld and wages war in Italy. The Aeneid

    Free download The Aeneid